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Proofs of Shia point of view about Caliphate-Imamate

Proofs of Shia point of view about Caliphate-Imamate

In this article we will provide evidence regarding the Caliphate of Imam Ali (as) from the Holy Quran and Sunni authentic sources. There is an important point to mention.If the successorship of Imam Ali (as) is proven over Abu Bakar.Then the successorship of the other 11 Imams will be automatically.proven.

We would like to mention another interesting thing here, when we ask from our Sunni brothers please show us one solid proof even from your own books that Abu Baker was the successor of the Holy Prophet. They fail to provide even one single proof from their books and Holy Quran. While Shias have thousands of proofs about Caliphate and Immamate from Shia books and number of proofs about the Successorship of Imam Ali (as) from the Sunni books of Ahadith and the Holy Quran. At the end of this article we will also discuss some Sunni replies on this topic.

Some proofs from the Holy Quran

Proof No. 1

Quran tells us about Moses and Aaron. Surah Taaha (20: 25-36)

“Moses said, "Lord, grant me courage, Make my task easy, and my tongue fluent, so that they may understand me. Appoint a deputy (for me) from my own family, Aaron, my brother, Strengthen my back by him, And associate him (with me) in my affair, That we may glorify You much, And remember You much, You are Well Aware of our situation." [Allah] said, "You have been granted your request, O Moses.”

In the verses of the Holy Quran mentioned above we understand the position of Aaron to Moses. We also understand that Allah appoints a deputy for His prophet. The prophet himself or the people did not choose the deputy but it was Allah`s decision.

This is a very well proven hadith in the Sunni sources (Bukhari, Muslim, Tarimzi and others) Prophet Mohammad said ”Ali you have same position to me like Aaron to Moses, the only difference is that there is no prophet after me”. Please read the hadith from this link which is mentioned in Bukhari.

(Quran 20:29-30) ` Appoint a deputy (for me) from my own people. Aaron, my brother`    

Pay attention on the verses of Quran where Prophet Moses asked Allah to grant him deputy his brother Aaron. Prophet Mohammad said Ali you have same position to me like Aaron to Moses. Prophet Moses left for forty nights and appointed his deputy for his nation. Then the question arises how can Prophet Mohammad leave his nation without a sucessor? 

Proof No. 1b

In Prophet  Moses prayer 25:31 it says Increase through him my strength `

If we look at the hadith of the Prophet in regards to this verse it very well proves that Imam Ali strengthened Islam. Allah(swt) honoured Imam Ali to do this job. Imam Ali deserves the successorship of the Holy Prophet more than any one else! 

Proof No.1c

In the Prophet  Moses prayer 25:32 he says  And let him be my partner in my task `

If we pay attention to the hadith of the Prophet in regards to the above verse. It proves that Imam Ali was the right hand of the Holy Prophet who shared all the tasks with the Holy Prophet and brought Islam success. Imam Ali deserves to be the head of the nation of Islam after the Holy Prophet more than any body else!

Some Sunni fellows try to make excuses that Prophet Aaron died in the life of Prophet Moses and he did not take over after Prophet Moses. If Prophet Aaron wasnt alive after Prophet Moses, then who is the successor of Moses?

It makes sense that Prophet Aaron acted as a deptuy of Moses, therefore he would be his successor after him. Imam Ali acted as a deputy in the Prophet's life, So Imam Ali should be the successor of the Holy Prophet.

Proof No.2   

The  Verse of Mubahala

We invite all Muslims to pay attention only to this verse (3:61) where Prophet Mohammad brought Imam Ali to Mubahala with him on his place. This will solve the matter of successorship of Prophet Mohammad.

The verse states ``call ourselves and yourselves``. In the verse the Arabic word (AN FO SA NA) is used which means ourselves. Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) brought Imam Ali with him on his part, therefore we have to accept this reality that there was no one else deserving of the same status as Imam Ali to represent Islam with the messenger of Allah. By this Holy Prophet showed the world who is his successor would be after him. It makes sense the person who represented Islam with the Prophet as his part or in other words the supreme person over all the the companions would be the person the Prophet selected to represent Islam. He is the one who is the successor of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh). For more details please read our article who are the central figures of Islam.

Proof No. 3

 Quranic standard about the successorship of a Prophet Surah Baqarah (2:247)

 “And their Prophet said to them: Surely Allah has raised Talut to be a king over you. They said: How can he hold kingship over us while we have a greater right to kingship than he, and he has not been granted an abundance of wealth? He said: Surely Allah has chosen him in preference to you, and He has increased him abundantly in knowledge and physique, and Allah grants His kingdom to whom He pleases, and Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower."

The above verse proves that Allah appointed the deputy of Prophet and a chief for the people. We can also easily unsderstand the criteria that who can be the best leader for the believers after the Prophet. According to the above verse that person must have these two qualities, (1) abundant knowledge and (2) great physique (strong nerves).

This is a well proven reality among Sunnis and Shias that no one had greater knowledge  than Imam Ali and no one was braver than Imam Ali among the companions. We want to ask our Sunni fellows if they can prove that Abu Bakar, Umar, and Usman were braver than Imam Ali? Are our Sunni brothers able to show us a name of one person who was killed by Abu Baker, Umar and Usman in the battles for Islam ?

Please read in Nissaie that Abu Baker and Umar defeated in Khaiber and they run away.

While we can read in Sahi Al Bukhari that Usman ran away in the battle of OHAD, Umar bin Khattab ran away in the battle of Hunain and left the Holy Prophet in lurch.

There is no doubt that Imam Ali had higher knowlwdge over all the companions. We would like to mention here one hadith from the Sunni sources where the Prophet says "I am the City of Knowledge, and Ali is its Gate. So whoever intends to enter the City and the Wisdom, he should enter from its Gate." (Al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, Fadha'il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and many others). We also invite the world to discover the knowledge of Imam Ali by reading Nahajjul Balagha which contains the sermons and letters of Imam Ali (as).

Proof no.4

The verse of Walayah, Quran says: (5:55-56)

“Only Allah is your Wali (Guardian-master), and His Messenger, and those who believe those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow. And whoever takes Allah and His messenger and those who believe for a mastership, and then surely the party of Allah is they that shall be triumphant.”

In respect to the above verses all Shia scholars state that this verse was revealed about Imam Ali. There are also many Sunni scholars who testify that this verse was revealed about the Imam. There is a hadith in Musnad Ahmad bin Hunbal and Nissaie by Abu Zar Ghaffari that says while Imam Ali(as) was praying, somebody asked for help and after nobody helped him, he complained that he was going empty handed from the mosque of the prophet. Imam Ali stretched his hand and let him to take his ring. The Holy Prophet prayed about Imam Ali, and then this verse was revealed. Sunni Tafseers, thalabi, Quratbi, Tafseer Tabari and many others. Please read more details about the verse of Walayah from this link.

 Some proofs from authentic Ahadith Sunni sources

Quran says about Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) in Surah Najam (53:3-4) ”He does not speak out of his own desires. It is a revelation which has been revealed to him.”

Proof No: 5

Ali is my Deputy and sucessor

Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) began to announce his successor from the beginning of his prophet hood. It is a long narration which is reported in Sunni sources, Ahmad bin Hunbal, Ibne khawaarizimi, ibne Jurair Tabri and others reported when the verse (26:214) was revealed

"And warn your nearest relations," Prophet Mohammad invited his close relatives and announced his prophet hood, The Prophet called them to oneness of Allah and said at the end” The one who first of all acknowledges my call and helps me in my mission is my brother, my helper, my heir, and my successor after me."

The Prophet repeated the last sentence three times, and each time none except Ali responded to him, saying, "I will aid and help you, O Prophet of Allah!" So the Prophet declared: "This Ali is my brother, and he is my successor and Caliph among you."

 Please read the narration by Imam Nissaie.

 Proof No: 6

`` Ali is my Caliph after me for all the believers``

 The Holy Prophet clearly stated that Ali is my Caliph after me for all the believers. Please read the narration by Imam Nissaie.

Proof No: 7

``No one can convey on my behalf except myself or Ali``

This hadith is mentioned in Trimdhi, Nissaie and other books. The Holy Prophet said: "Ali is the part of me and I am the part of Ali, no one conveys something on my behalf except me or Ali." Everyone accepts that this is an authentic hadith. The holy Prophet said this on the occasion when the Prophet gave responsibility to Imam Ali over Abu Bakar to announce the verses of Surah Taubah during Hajj.

The Holy Prophet took the responsibility from Abu Baker and gave it to Imam Ali to announce these verses. If Abu Bakar cannot announce only 10 verses on behalf of the Prophet of Islam, how can he interpreter of entire Quran over Imam Ali?

Please read the above hadith from this link in Nissaie.

Proof no. 8

``Ali is from me and I am from Ali``

We also find this hadith in Bukhari, where the Holy Prophet says  “O Ali you are from and I am from you.” We are posting the link from Saudi official website, Ministry of religious affairs. please find the narration.

We also find these words of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) that Ali is the part of me and I am the part of Ali, these are the proven words of the Prophet which Sunni fellows cannot deny. May we ask simple question from our Sunni brothers if they could give us the satisfactory explanation of these words of the holy Prophet about Imam Ali?

It will help them to understand the matter of succesorship of the holy Prophet.

 We are easily able to understand from the words of Prophet that Imam Ali is the true picture of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh); Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) speaks through Imam Ali and Imam Ali is the original successor of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh).

We find the same wordings of Holy Prophet about Imam Hussein in Tirmidhi and other books. It has exactly the same meaning as above that Imam Hussein is also the successor of Prophet Mohammad and the teachings of Prophet Mohammad are preserved through Imam Hussein.

Some of our Sunni fellows say that the holy Prophet said this about Imam Ali and Imam Hussein because they had spiritual relation with the Prophet. We want to inform them that all companions of the Prophet and whole nation of Islam have spiritual relation with Prophet Mohammad (pbuh). Show us this wording about anybody else?

Proof No. 9

Ali is the master of all believers after me

This ia true hadith in the Sunni dources. Imam Trimdhi mentioned it as a Hassan hadith. Those peopel who want to make people confuse about Ghadir. They mix up this hadith with the hadith of Ghadir. They try to confuse the people and bring the Yamen story in the scenario. But actually the Holy Prophet said this on a separate occassion which is different than Ghadir.  “Ali is from me I am from Ali, Ali is the MAWLA (Master) of all believers after me.”  Please read this hadith from Nissaie in this link. Please also read this hadith from Trimdhi from this link.

Proof No. 10

Hadith Al-Ghadir `Any body who acknowlwdges me as Master Ali is his Master`

Hadith Al Ghadir is very authentic Hadith in the Sunni sources. It has so many chains. Please read here from Nissaie. Imam Trimdhi mentioned it as Hassan hadith. Please read here from Trimdhi.

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) held his last gathering after his last pilgrimage at the place of Ghadir e khum on his way back to Medina from Mecca. It was a place where people from different provinces should say Good bye to each other and take different routes for their home. The holy Prophet stopped all his followers on that place for few hours and delivered a long speech. The Prophet called Imam Ali on the stage, told his companions about the virtues of Imam Ali as. The Prophet held the hand of Imam Ali showed it to the people and said : 

 "Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?" People cried and answered: "Yes, O' Messenger of God." Then Prophet (PBUH) held up the hand of Ali and said: "Whoever I am his Master (Mawla), Ali is his Master (Mawla). O' God, love those who love him, and be hostile to those who are hostile to him."     

After his speech, the Messenger of Allah asked everybody to give the oath of allegiance to Ali (as) and congratulate him. Among those who gave him the oath were Umar, Abu Bakar, and Uthman. It is narrated that Umar and Abu Bakar said:

"Well done Ibn Abi Talib! Today you became the master (Mawla) of all believing men and women."

(Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Mishkaw chapter virtues of Companions, al-Musannaf, by Ibn Abi Shaybah, Tarikh, by Khatib al-Baghdadi, v8, p 290,596 from Abu Hurayrah). Please read the narration here in Arabic.

Did the companions of prophet congratulated Imam Ali for friendship? that Ali is their friend now? Please read here about the Sunni misconception about the word MAWLA, please follow the link. Please read the proof from the Sunni sources that Imam Ali asked the people to testify Ghadir for him. Did Imam Ali asked the people testify ghadir in order to prove that he their friend ?

Proof No. 11

Hadith al-thaqalain  `The Prophet said: I am leaving two weighty things among you Quran and Ahlalbait`

The Holy Prophet appointed his Ahlalbait for the interpretation of Quran and Islam. Imam Ali is the head of Ahlalbait of the Prophet. Those Ahlalbait who are appointed by the Prophet for the interpretation of Quran and for the guidance of the nation of Islam. They are the real sucessor of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). Please read here the documentory proofs Hadith al-thaqalain from the Sunni sources. For more details, please also read this explainatory article who are Ahlalbait. Please follow the link.

Proof No. 12

The Prophet (pbuh) said; There are 12 Caliphs after me

This is another authentic hadith from the Sunni sources. We are giving here the link from Sahih Muslim. The Hadith says there will be 12 Caliphs after me from Quraish. The Caliphate will be contineous, There will be no break and no gap in the Caliphate. Imam Ali is the first Caliph-Successor of the Prophet and there 11 Imams who are the real Caliphs-Successors of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). Please read the hadith from Sahih Muslim. For the researcher for want to read more commentory on this hadith, please follow this link.

There are also many verses of the Holy Quran and many other Ahadith of the Holy Prophet to prove the successorship of Imam Ali. But we stop here by providing the 12 proofs of successorship of Imam Ali as we all know that there are 12 successors of the Messenger of Allah Prophet Mohamamd (pbuh).

It is hard for us to stop our hands with out telling the Special status of Imam Ali in Islam.

The Prophet ordered everyone to close thier doors openning towards the mosque of the Prophet. No one was allowed to eneter in the mosque in the state of Janabah except the Holy Prophet and Imam Ali as. The Companions including Hamza (rz) uncle of the Prophet complained about it that Imam Ali is allowed but no body else. The Prophet replied I did not order on my own, this is all according to the orders of Allah swt.Please read this hadith from Trimdhi. Please check this hadith from Nissaie with Urdu translation. 

Sunni reply to the Shia Proofs about Caliphate

Sunni reply No. 1

When Shias ask from the Sunni brothers please show us a one single solid proof even from your own books that Abu Baker was the successor of the Holy Prophet. While we provide you the numbers of proofs about the successorship of Imam Ali. Then some Sunni fellows come up with one weak proof. They mention that actually Abu Baker led the Prayers in the last days of the Holy Prophet. This is the reason we consider Abu Baker as the successor of the Holy Prophet.

Shia answer to Sunni reply No. 1

(A) This story which is narrated by Abu Baker own daughter (Ayesha wife of the Prophet) that Abu Bkaer led the prayers in the last days of the Prophet. This story contradicts with other proven narrations. Please read the narration from Bukhari that Abu Baker was sent out from Medina Under the Command of Osama bin Zaid. The Prophet put Abu Baker under the command of a 25 years old young man, how come the Prophet can make Abu Baler the head of whole nation of Islam ? Please read the narration from Bukhari.

(B) Please read the proof Bukhari that Abu Baker and Umar used to pray behind a slave name Salim. If this is the criteria then Salim should be the successor over Abu Baker. Please follow the link.

(C) In the meeting of Saqifa when they left Prophet`s body unburried and they made their own Govt. Abu Baker gave speech for the Govt that they are Meccan closer relative of the Prophet. The Govt. Should be handed over to them. Abu Bkaer and Umar did not mention any thing that Abu Baker led the prayers which makes him entitle for the successorship.

(D) Actually it is not a big for the Sunnis if some leads the prayers. Please read another narration from Sahih Muslim that Prophet (pbuh) himself prayed behind another Companion.

(E) The above Sunni reply also contradicts with Umar bin Khattab. If we read the narration of Sahih Muslim we come to know that Abu Baker was not appointed successor by the Holy Prophet (pbuh). Please read the narration.

We like to say here that the Prophet (pbuh) did not announce Abu Baker as his successor. Abu Baker got the Govt. over the people. For example people of USA gave Govt. to Obama. we can not announce Obama as the successor of Jesus. Because Jesus did not announce Obama as his successor! 

Sunni reply No. 2

The Sunni fellows try to give another reply on the issue of successorship. This second reply is extremely oppsite to the first reply. They say actually the Prophet did not appoint any body as his successor. Those Prophets who appointed thier successors after them, their successors were also Prophets. A non-Prophet can not be the successor of a Prophet. There is no Prophet after Prophet Mohamamd (pbuh). This is the reason that Prophet Mohammad did not appoint any body as his successor.

Shia answer to Sunni reply to No.2

We have already provided the sufficent and satisfactory proofs that Prophet Mohamamd (pbuh) appointed Imam Ali as as his successor. This is impossible and very illogical that Prophet Mohamamd (pbuh) did not appoint any one as his successor. Please read our comments on the Sunni Points of view about Caliphate. We would like to mention one important thing here that taking over the Govt after Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) in one aspect of successorship. But actually Islam itself needs the successors of the last Prophet. Please read our article Philosophy of Caliphate-Immamate.

Those people who say that a non-Prophet can not be the successor of a Prophet. They do not have true informations or they knowingly try to misguide others. We have provided the verse from Surah Baqarah ( 2:247) in the begenning of this article that Allah chosen Talut as a successor of a Prophet. We challenge to those fellows that bring a single proof that Talut was a Prophet? Talut remained alive and king of his nation after the death of Prophet Samual. Then later on that kingdom was given to Prophet David then Prophet Suliman. Please read the history of Tabari and Ibn Kathir. Please check the proof here in Urdu.

We like to give another example that the Prophet Yousef`s brother Yahowa who got the successorship and kingdom of Prophet Yousef was not a Prophet. Please read Tafseer ibn e Kathir under the commentary of Surah Yousaf verse 7-8 that there is no evidance that Prophet Yaàqoob`s sons other than Prophet Yousef were Prophets. Although Prophehood remained in the decendents of Prophet Yaàqoob but Yousef (as) was the only son who was the Prophet. Please check the proof here in Urdu.

May Allah(swt) guide those who seek for truth and send blessings to holy Prophet Mohammad(PBUH) and his Ahlalbait

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